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Membrane noise
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Derksen, H.E. 1965. Axon membrane voltage fluctuations.
Acta Physiol. Pharmacol.,
Neerlandica 13: 373-466
PhD-thesis: November 10th, 1965

     Report on the actual discovery of membrane noise.

This work is the result of our cooperation:
     Derksen developed the symmetrical recording and amplifier system, of which the sensitivity had to be increased from the mV range into the µV range. It was symmetrical in order to use cross-correlation to obtain the common noise source of the axon membrane, enabling the calculation of its power spectrum.
     My contribution consisted of the preparation of each individual nerve fiber and the cooperative development of the nerve chamber used for the measurements.
    All experiments were performed by both of us together.

This paper was, therefore, the result of joint work. A single-author publication was, however, necessary since with respect to working for a thesis teamwork was at that time still unacceptable to the University of Leiden.
To cover this problematical situation we planned the Science publication to appear in 1965. It was delayed, however, because the phenomenon of  membrane noise discovered by us was still considered being an artifact generated by instrumental noise (as happened before with my results on excitability fluctuations). So it appeared in 1966.
The 1977 article in Nature covered t
he other part of the work discussed in this thesis. 
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Derksen, H.E. and  A.A. Verveen, 1966. Fluctuations of resting neural membrane potential. Science 151: 1388-1389.
Our formal report on the actual discovery of membrane noise.
Received by the editorial board on October 25th, 1965, this paper appeared in print on March 18th, 1966.
This article was instrumental for our peers to accept the existence of membrane noise and, together with the following two papers, to accept the stochastic nature of neuronal activity.
Verveen, A.A., H.E. Derksen and K.L. Schick, 1967. Voltage fluctuations of neural membrane. Nature, 216: 588-589.
     With this publication, we tried to attract the attention of our peers to the phenomenon that membrane voltage noise is stochastic. The nature and the amount of variability depends upon  membrane voltage level.
Verveen, A.A., en H.E. Derksen, 1968. Fluctuation phenomena in nerve membrane.
Proc. IEEE 56: 906-916.
     (Review, by invitation)
Footprint     Since 2000     Since 2010

see also the one-over-f  noise bibliography

Verveen, A.A., 1969. An introduction to the use of time series analysis in physiology.
In: W. Reichardt, ed. Processing of optical data by organisms and by machines. Proceedings of the International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”, Course 18. Academic Press, New York London: 291-327.
Footprint      Since 2000
Verveen, A.A. and H.E. Derksen, 1969. Amplitude distribution of axon membrane noise voltage.
Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 15: 353-379.
Siebenga, E. and  A.A. Verveen, 1971. The dependence of the 1/f noise intensity of the node of Ranvier on membrane potential.
Proceedings First European Biophysics Congress
: 219-223.
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Siebenga, E. and  A.A. Verveen, 1972. Membrane noise and ion transport in the node of Ranvier. In: Biomembranes vol. 3: Passive Permeability of Cell Membranes,
 F. Kreuzer and J.F.G. Slegers, eds, Plenum Press, NY – London: 293-298.
Analysis of components of the noise power spectrum.
The shot component, predicted by Chuck Stevens was discovered to exist both by Siebenga et al. and Harvey M. Fishman, 1972 (Excess noise from small patches of squid axon membrane.Biophys. Soc. Abstr. 119a).
Footprint     Since 2000
Siebenga, E., A.W.A. Meyer and  A.A. Verveen, 1973. Membrane shot-noise in electrically depolarized nodes of Ranvier.
Pflügers Arch.
341: 87-96.
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Verveen, A.A., 1973. Electric membrane noise and channel dynamics.
In: Regulation and Control in Physiological Systems.
A.S. Iberall and A.C. Guyton, Eds. Pittsburg, PA., Instrument Society of America; 81-84.
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Verveen, A.A. and L.J. DeFelice, 1974. Membrane Noise.
Progr. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 28: 189-265.
     Review paper by invitation.               
Siebenga, E., J. de Goede,  A.A. Verveen, 1974. The influence of TTX, DNP and TEA on membrane flicker noise and shot effect noise of the frog node of Ranvier.
Pflügers Arch. 351: 25-34.

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Schick, K. L, and  A.A. Verveen, 1974. 1/f noise with a low frequency white noise limit.
Nature 251: 599-601.
     Investigation of the power spectrum of particle flow through the elongated stem of an hourglass.
Footprint     Since 2000    Since 2010

see also the one-over-f  noise bibliography

354 pdf
Verveen, A.A., 1974. Random processes in the nervous system.
Methodology and Science 7: 80-91.      
     In this paper, I discuss possible functions of noise and other sources of randomness in the nervous system.

84 pdf
Van den Berg, R.J., J. de Goede and  A.A. Verveen, 1975. Conductance Fluctuations in Ranvier Nodes.
Pflügers Arch. 360: 17-23.                           

230 pdf
Moolenaar, W.H., de Goede, J. and  A.A. Verveen, 1976. Membrane Noise in Paramecium.
Nature 260, 344-346.

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De Goede, J. and  A.A. Verveen, 1977. Electrical membrane noise: its origin and interpretation.
In: Electrical Phenomena at the Biological Membrane Level.
E. Roux, ed. Proc. 29th Int. Meeting Soc. Chimie Physique, Orsay, 12-15 October 1976.
Elsevier, Amsterdam: 337-348.                        Footprint 

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Van den Berg, R.J., E. Siebenga, J. de Goede, W.H. Moolenaar and A.A. Verveen, 1977.1/f noise in nerve membranes.
In: Fyokyo, H., et al., eds. Proceedings of the Symposium on 1/f Fluctuations,
The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, July: 97-105.
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De Goede, J., M.W. Vonk, R.J. van den Berg, H. van Rijn and  A.A. Verveen, 1977. Some problems in membrane noise research.
Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sc. 303: 389-398.
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